Medicinal / Herbal use of Jute :
In this page, Author has attempted to bring the Medicinal benefits / herbal benefits of Jute / Jute leaves, gathered from various sources, for the information of the readers.
Article of Md. Mahbubul Islam, PhD (Agronomy), Director (A&F), Bangladesh Jute Research Institute
Jute (Corchorus capsularis L. & C. olitorius L.) leaf:
Vegetable for nutrition and medicine for human health and beauty
Md. Mahbubul Islam, PhD (Agronomy)
(Director (A&F), Bangladesh Jute Research Institute, Dhaka-1207
Cel: 88-01552416537, 88-01711389213. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Summary: A information search review was done on jute leaf as vegetable and
medicine. It was observed in different literatures that this green, leafy vegetable is rich in beta-carotene for good eyesight, iron for healthy red blood cells, calcium for strong bones and teeth, and vitamin C for smooth, clear skin, strong immune cells, and fast wound-healing. Vitamins A, C and E present in jute leaf/Saluyot “spongeup” free radicals, scooping them up before they can commit cellular sabotage. Jute leaf as vegetable contain an abundance of antioxidants that have been associated with protection from chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension as well as other medical conditions. Due to better performance in respect of yield and quality the mutant CM-18 has been registered as the first jute variety in Bangladesh for vegetable purpose in the name of Binapatshak-1 in 2003.
Fresh jute leaf has higher demand. Ayurvedics use the leaves for ascites, pain,
piles, and tumors. Elsewhere the leaves are used for cystitis, dysuria, fever, and gonorrhea. The cold infusion is said to restore the appetite and strength.
Jute dicotyledenous fibre-yielding plant of the genus Corchorus, order Tiliaceae. Jute was once known as the golden fibre of Bangladesh, since it was the most important cash crop for the country. Jute fibre is produced mainly from two commercially important species, namely White Jute (Corchours capsularis), and Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius). The centre of origin of white jute is said to be Indo-Burma including South China, and that of tossa Africa.
The word jute is probably coined from the word jhuta or jota, an Orrisan word. However, the use of jutta potta cloth was mentioned both in the Bible and Monushanghita- Mahabharat. This indicates the ancient uses of jute materials by the people of these areas. There is evidence of the trade of jute cloth in the 16th century. AIN-I-AKBARI (1590) mentions sackcloth originating from Bengal. Jute grows under wide variation of climatic conditions and stress of tropic and subtropics.
Although jute is grown in almost all the districts of Bangladesh, Faridpur, Tangail, Jessore, Dhaka, Sirajganj, Bogra, and Jamalpur are considered the better growing areas. Total area under the crop is estimated to be 559,838 ha and the total production about 5310,500 bales. BANGLADESH JUTE RESEARCH INSTITUTE (BJRI) so far has developed about 27 high-yielding and good quality jute cultivars.
It is grown in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Brazil and some other countries. Bangladesh used to enjoy almost a monopoly of this fibre commercially; its share in the export market was 80% in 1947-48 but in 1975- 76 it fell to only 25%. This fall in the world market was due to the fact that many countries had started growing jute and allied fibres
Two species of jute (Corchorus capsularis L. and Corchorus olitorius L.) are being cultivated in Bangladesh. Capsularis (deshi) has maximum use as vegetable than Oloitorius (Tossa) due to its bitter taste. Jute leaves are being used as vegetables in Africa, Middle East, Southeast Asia, including Bangladesh for a long time. Besides, it is also used as herbal medicine to control or prevent dysentery, worm and constipation etc. Jute leaves are being used as health-food in Japan. Jute leave is rich in vitamins, carotinoids, calcium, potassium and dietary fibers.
This vegetable popularly known as “Saluyot” is a favorite vegetable of the Ilocanos. Saluyot thrives almost anywhere in the Philippines, requires little care in cultivation, and can be grown year-round. Vegetables are not just rich in nutrition but include lots of health benefits like protecting us from various diseases. Nutrition-wise, vegetables are low in calories, yet, are high in vitamins and minerals. They are also good sources of fiber. Fiber maintains the intestinal tract in good health. Some fiber may even reduce the risk of
certain cancers and health diseases (By hepzibah on July 24th, 2008
Jute leaves are the leaves of certain jute plants, used as a food source in Asia, the Middle East, and parts of Africa. In addition to adding a distinct flavor to food, jute leaves also have nutritional value, and they act as thickeners in soups, stews, and sauces. Jute leaves may also be called saluyot or ewedu, depending on the region of the world in which one is cooking. It is possible to grow jute for its fresh leaves in some parts of the world, and some specialty stores also stock it in fresh, frozen, or dried form, depending on their location and size.
Jute is a plant with many uses. All plants in the Corchorus genus are considered jute, although two have particular economic and culinary value, C. olitorius and C. capsularis. The leaves of these plants are simple, and they may have slightly serrated edges. When harvested young, jute leaves are flavorful and tender; older leaves tend to be more woody and fibrous, making them less ideal for consumption.
Description of the crop jute
Annual, much-branched herb 90-120 cm tall; stems glabrous. Leaves 6-10 cm long, 3.5-5 cm broad, elliptic-lanceolate, apically acute or acuminate, glabrous, serrate, the lower serratures on each side prolonged into a filiform appendage over 6 mm long, rounded at the base, 3-5 nerved; petioles 2-2.5 cm long, slightly pubescent, especially towards the apex; atipules subulate, 6-10 mm long. Flowers pale yellow; bracts lanceolate; peduncle shorter than the petiole; pedicles 1-3, very short. Sepals ca 3 mm long, oblong, apiculate. Petals 5 mm long, oblong spathulate. Style short; stigma microscopically papillose. Capsules 3-6.5 cm long, linear, cylindric erect, beaked, glabrous, 10-ribbed, 5-valved; valves with transverse partitions between the seeds. Seeds trigonous, black (Kirtikar and Basu, 1975).
Production season and soil
Jute grows well where the annual rainfall is 1500 mm or more, with at least 250 mm during each of the months of March, April and May. The optimum range of temperature required is 18°-33°C. Jute is cultivated in the rainy season. In Bangladesh sowing usually starts at the end of February and continues up to the end of May, depending on the species.
Cultivation largely depends upon pre-monsoon showers and moisture conditions. C. capsularis is more water tolerant and thus generally can be grown in low lands, and even under water logging conditions, while C. olitorious is more susceptible to water logging and hence cultivated in medium to lower medium lands. Jute can be grown in a number of soil types, ranging from clay to sandy loam with optimum fertility, and soil pH ranging from
Corchorus olitorius (jute) is a native plant of tropical Africa and Asia, and has since spread to Australia, South America and some parts of Europe. Its leafy vegetable is popularly used in soup preparation and folk medicine for the treatment of fever, chronic cystitis, cold and tumours. A comparative study of the antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extract (HE) and lipophilic extract (LE) constituents of the leafy vegetable has been assessed. HE and LE of the leaf were prepared using water and hexane, respectively and their antioxidant
properties were determined. HE had a significantly higher (P<0.05) 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging ability (aqueous, 9.6-84.4%; hexane, 2.0-20.4%), reducing power (aqueous, 0.67 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g; hexane, 0.49 mmol ascorbic acid equivalent/g) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (aqueous, 2.3 mmol/g; hexane, 1.1 mmol/g) than LE; conversely, LE had a significantly higher (P<0.05) OH. scavenging activity (44.5-46.2%) than HE (11.6-32.3%), while there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in their Fe(II) chelating ability (HE, 57.7-66.7%; LE, 56.4-
61.1%). The higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging ability, reducing power and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic extract may be due to its significantly higher (P<0.05) total phenol (630.8 mg/100 g), total flavonoid (227.8 mg/100 g) and non-flavonoid polyphenols (403.0 mg/100 g), and its high ascorbic acid content (32.6 mg/100 g). While the higher OH. scavenging ability of LE may be due to its high total carotenoid content (42.5 mg/100 g). Therefore, the additive/synergistic antioxidant activities of the hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents may contribute to the medicinal properties of C. olitorius leaf (Oboh G, Raddatz H, Henle T. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 2:124-34. Epub 2009 Apr 23.).
After irradiation, a dwarf mutant CM-18 with more number of leaves has been selected. The mutant CM-18 was selected out for its higher leaf yield. Then it was tested in farmers' fields. Fresh twigs (edible portion) of 30 days old seedling of both the genotypes were analyzed for Protein, Fiber, Alkaloid, Carotene and Vitamin C. The mutant line CM-18 produced 32 per cent higher twig yield than its parental variety CVL-1. Qualitative characters compared with its parental variety CVL-1 are shown below: The mutant CM-18 contains higher protein and carotene contents than parent variety. Fiber, Alkaloid and
Vitamin C contents are more or less similar with CVL-1. Low alkaloid contained in leaves make it tasty. The mutant CM-18 has high vegetable yield potential, protein and carotene content. Due to better performance in respect of yield and quality the mutant CM-18 has been registered as the first jute variety in Bangladesh for vegetable purpose in the name of Binapatshak-1 in 2003.
Research reveals that this plant originated in Egypt and was the source of health and beauty of the Egyptian royalties, including Cleopatra. Due to the high anti-oxidant activity of saluyot, eating it reduces the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines in the face and body. Regular consumption of saluyot can make you appear young (Posted on Aug 11th, 2010 by healthrecipes.ws).
Toxicity, Energy & Biotic Factors
Contains HCN and several cardiac glycosides. Negm et al (1980) report the LD50 of issue extracts to mice. The "lethal dose" of Corchoroside A to cats is 0.053-0.0768 mg/kg and Corchoroside B 0.059-0.1413, but some authors say that Corchoroside A is twice as active as Corchoroside B.
Assuming the fiber yields are 6% of green weight, annual green weight productivity ranges from 13 to 42 MT/ha, with genetic potential of 67 MT. Assuming 80% moisture, this translates to 2.6-13.4 MT DM. ICAR (1973) reports DM yields of ca 10 MT near Barrackpore corresponding roughly to an uptake of 75 kg N, 4 5 kg P2O5, 120 kg K2O, 115 kg CaO, and 35 kg MgO.
Anthracnose spots caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides may infect 50-90% of a jute population, but spraying with copper oxychloride at 0.5% strength checked the spread, holding it to 5-10% (ICAR, 1973). Thangavel et al (1974) found that this species was badly infested by 3 species of weevils (Myllocerus spp.) while C. capsularis was unaffected. The semilooper Anomis sabulifera may stunt the growth, reducing fiber yields by ca 13-32%.
The yellow mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus may also reduce yields. (Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. http://www.worldjute.com/jute_news/medijut.html)
Jute leaves are consumed in various parts of the world. It is a popular vegetable in West Africa. The Yoruba of Nigeria call it "ewedu". The Hausa people of Nigeria and their Fulbe neighbours call it "rama." They use it to produce soup ("taushe") or boil the leaves and mix it with "Kuli-kuli" or groundnut cake and consume the mixture which they call "kwado" in Hausa. The Hausa peasant farmers cultivate it beside their corn-stalk constructed
homesteads or among their main crops in their farms. There are commercial jute farmers in Northern and South Western Nigeria. They (jute commercial farmers)have a strong National Association registered by the authorities. In Northern Sudan it's called "Khudra" meaning green in Sudanese Arabic. The Hausa and Fulbe peoples also use jute leaves to treat some diseases. And the Songhay of Mali call it "fakohoy" whereas Tunisians call it mulukhiyah. It is made into a common mucilaginous (somewhat "slimy") soup or sauce in some West African cooking traditions, as well as in Egypt, where it is called mulukhiyya, Cypriots call it molocha - and that refers to food - in terms of fibre this would be unknown - and it is sometimes eaten as boiled vegetable with lemon and olive oil. It is also a popular dish in the northern provinces of the Philippines, where it is known as saluyot. Jute leaves are also consumed among the Luyhia people of Western Kenya, where it is commonly known as 'mrenda' or 'murere'. It is eaten with 'ugali', which is also a staple for most
communities in Kenya. The leaves are rich in betacarotene, iron, calcium, and Vitamin C.
The plant has an antioxidant activity with a significant α-tocopherol equivalent Vitamin E
Japan has been importing dry jute leaf from Africa and they are using it as the substitute of coffee and tea. In Europe, jute leaves are being used as soup. Through induced mutation, different types of mutant and varieties of C. capsularis L. had been developed.
Saluyot can be prepared into dishes like dinengdeng of the Ilocano, bulanglang, or sauteed with bamboo shoots or dried beans. It can be steamed and pureed, mixed with chicken, or prepared into soup like how the Japanese prepare it as molohiya.
Like spinach and other leafy greens, jute leaves can be cooked whole as a major component of a dish, or they can be loosely chopped so that they blend better with other ingredients. Some cooks like to salt their jute leaves and rest them before cooking, to draw out some of the slime which can make them troubling to the palate. The longer jute leaves cook, the more slimy and dense they get, so it is important to pay attention to cooking times in recipes which call for jute leaves.
Nutritional comparison between jute leaf and spinach (per 100 gm each)
Ingredients and unit Spinach leaf Jute leaf
Calories (kl cal) 25 73
Protein (g) 3.3 3.6
Lipid (g) 0.2 0.6
Calcium (mg) 55 298
Iron (mg) 3.9 11
Carotene (mg) 5200 6400
Vitamin B-1 (mg) 0.13 -
Vitamin B-2 (mg) 0.23 -
Vitamin C (mg) 65 64
Uses & Folk Medicine
While perhaps better known as a fiber crop, jute is also a medicinal "vegetable", eaten from Tanganyika to Egypt. Dried leaves were given me by an Egyptian friend who had brought them with him to this country. They are used in soups under the Arabic name "Molukhyia." In India the leaves and tender shoots are eaten. The dried material is there known as "nalita." Injections of olitoriside markedly improve cardiac insufficiencies and have no cumulative attributes; hence, it can serve as a substitute for strophanthin.
Reported to be demulcent, deobstruent, diuretic, lactagogue, purgative, and tonic, tussah jute is a folk remedy for aches and pains, dysentery, enteritis, fever, dysentery, pectoral pains, and tumors (Duke and Wain, 1981; List and Horhammer, 1969-1979). Ayurvedics
use the leaves for ascites, pain, piles, and tumors. Elsewhere the leaves are used for cystitis, dysuria, fever, and gonorrhea. The cold infusion is said to restore the appetite and strength (Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops.
Ingredients (Chemistry of jute leaf)
Per 100 g, the leaves are reported to contain 43-58 calories, 80.4-84.1 g H2O, 4.5-5.6 g protein, 0.3 g fat, 7.6-12.4 g total carbohydrate, 1.7-2.0 g fiber, 2.4 g ash, 266-366 mg Ca, 97-122 mg P, 7.2-7.7 mg Fe, 12 mg Na, 444 mg K, 6,410-7,850 ug beta-carotene equivalent, 0.13-0.15 mg thiamine, 0.26- 0.53 mg riboflavin, 1.1-1.2 mg niacin, and 53-80 mg ascorbic acid. Leaves contain oxydase and chlorogenic acid. The folic acid content is substantially higher than that of other folacin-rich vegetables, ca 800 micrograins per 100 g (ca 75% moisture) or ca 3200 micrograms on a zero moisture basis (Chen and Saad, 1981) (Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops.
This green, leafy vegetable is rich in beta-carotene for good eyesight, iron for healthy red blood cells, calcium for strong bones and teeth, and vitamin C for smooth, clear skin, strong immune cells, and fast wound-healing. Vitamins A, C and E present in Saluyot “sponge-up” free radicals, scooping them up before they can commit cellular sabotage.
One-half cup cooked saluyot leaves contains: 1.3g protein, 0.3g fat, 3.1g carbohydrates, 0.4g fiber, 87.3mg calcium, 22.5mg phosphorous, 1334Aug AY-carotene or 222Aug Retinol Equivalent(vitamin A), 1.0mg iron, 0.02mg thiamin, 0.04mg riboflavin, 0.3mg niacin, and 10mg Ascorbic Acid or vitamin C. Saluyot has an antioxidant activity of 77% or Au-tocopherol equivalent (vitamin E) of 48.9.
There are so many jute and allied fibre crops varieties developed, released and used at farmers’ level for commercial cultivation. All these varieties have both vegetable and medicinal values. Jute leaf contains protein, calories, fibres and as well as antitumor promoters; Phytol and Monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol. It may reduce risk of cancer. Therefore jute leaf has a great importance in terms of human nutrition and health care.
Islam, M. M. 2009. Jute Seed Technology, Pub. M. Mahmudul Islam. 379, Middle Monipur, Mirpur,
Dhaka-1207. Bangladesh. pp. 165.
Islam, M.M. and Rahman, M. 2008. In: Hand book on agricultural technologies of jute, kenaf and
mesta crops. Bangladesh Jute Res. Inst., Manikmia Avenue, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh.
Islam, M. M. 2010. Jute (In Bengali version), Pub. By Dynamic Publisher. Bangladesh.
hepzibah on July 24th, 2008, Saluyot (Jute Leaves): The Wow Vegetable
James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. Medicinal use of Jute
Oboh G, Raddatz H, Henle T. Characterization of the antioxidant properties of hydrophilic and
lipophilic extracts of Jute (Corchorus olitorius) leaf.. Biochemistry Department, Federal
University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. email@example.com. Int J Food Sci Nutr.
2009;60 Suppl 2:124-34. Epub 2009 Apr 23.
Shamsuzzaman, K. M. (2003) Bangladeshi jute (Corchorus capsularis, Corchorus olitorius) leaf
as medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Nov. 2003.
What are Jute Leaves? (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-jute-leaves.htm).
Anti-Aging Secrets of Cleopatra - Article Credit : http://www.antiaginghacks.com
Grown for Food Since 6000 B.C.
Jute has been grown for food since 6000 B.C. and was reportedly eaten by Cleopatra for its health and beauty benefits. In recent history however, it has been relatively unknown for its range of culinary and health benefits. Instead the fiber-rich stem of the jute plant has been dismissed as just a source of for bags and ropes.
In part, the reason for this probably lies in the fact that this food with its tender leaves is so commonly grown in many parts of the world that it had no commercial value as a food product. But maybe the Egyptian people knew a secret. This member of the mallow family is considered a staple in Egypt, where it is called malukhiyah.
Today, in many parts of Asia, Africa and in the Philippines, jute leaves, also called saluyot, or Jew mallow, have been heading the list of anti-aging miracles. By far, one of the most nutritious and rich sources of calcium, beta carotene, and vitamins C & E, jute leaves are a healthy addition to soups and stir-fry veggie dishes. Like the consistency of okra when cooked, jute leaves are similarly sticky and are added to soups, sauces, and stews to thicken the dish.
Anti-aging Benefits of Saluyot
Jute leaves contain almost all of the nutrients needed by humans. But, the most important benefit of the leaves is their high antioxidant property, primarily in the form of Vitamin E. These antioxidants combine with free radicals that cause problems like arthritis, hardening of arteries, heart and kidney ailments. Among the many benefits, saluyot contains:
· Vitamin A, which aids in repairing the body’s cells and improves eyesight
· Vitamin C or ascorbic acid, which improves circulation and helps lower the risk of cataracts and other eye disorders
· Vitamin E, which slows down the aches and pains associated with aging, holds infertility at bay, and increases stamina
· A high percentage of calcium, which contributes to strong teeth and bones.
Eating saluyot regularly helps control blood pressure & cholesterol, and lowers the risk of asthma, cancer, diabetes and heart disease. Dried saluyot leaves can be made into a tea believed to cure headaches, dysentery, stomach aches and ulcers
Saluyot can be added to any soup you make: chicken, beans, pumpkin and so on. It could also be stir-fried and eaten with rice or noodles. The longer it is boiled or fried, the more sticky it gets, so do not let it stew for too long.
1 cup jute leaves, washed and finely chopped
1 cup pumpkin leaves, washed and finely chopped
5 bitter eggplants, washed and finely chopped
3 cloves garlic, minced
1 tsp. Ground coriander seeds
Add enough water or chicken broth for cooking the ingredients without sticking
Mix the ingredients in a pot and simmer for about 15 minutes on a low flame.
Lightly sauté garlic with ground coriander in a tablespoon of olive or coconut oil and add at the end. Salt to taste.
Where to Find Saluyot
It is recommended that you buy organically grown saluyot, as you would any other vegetable. But, because the leaves wilt quickly after picking, you’re not likely to find it in your local grocery or even farmer’s market in the US. Although you most certainly would in the Philippines or Egypt.
In the Philippines, a form of veggie noodle supplemented with saluyot has been developed to combat nutritional deficiencies. Products include canton and instant cup noodles and may soon be available in specialty stores in the West.
Grow Your Own Wrinkle Buster
Although some jute plants produce bitter leaves and are not considered edible, we managed to find a seed source for an edible variety of saluyot at Nichols Garden Nursery in Oregon.
Although it can be found in the wild in many soil types, it grows best in nutrient rich soils. Saluyot doesn’t tolerate drought, so be sure to water it at least weekly during dry weather. It will produce best in warm weather and the leaves should be picked frequently to encourage new tender growth. As fall approaches you can pull the entire plant and hang it to dry. The dry leaves can either be used for tea or added to soups during the cold months.Add some saluyot to your kitchen garden and grow your own wrinkle buster. You might even want to experiment making your own facial masks and tell your friends you’re using Cleopatra’s Secret.
Trees & Herbs with Medicinal Value
Saluyot, also named as jute, its color green leafy vegetable, It is rich in calcium, phosphorus, iron and potassium. It has also been determined that 100 grams of saluyot contains an ample amount of Vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, and is also rich in fiber.
With these facts alone, It is also gives diet. This vegetable also assures safety of intake even for pregnant mothers. Unlike other plants with medicinal benefits like makabuhay, it is safe to be eaten even by those which are medically considered to be in a weak state. Saluyot can be found basically everywhere. From warm, tropical countries like the Philippines to tropical deserts and wet forest zones, saluyot is abundant. It does not require much attention and care, and thus, thrives without cultivation the whole year round.
Because the saluyot or jute plant is by nature a vegetable, it is easy to prepare and can be incorporated to various dishes that would allow individuals to benefit from its vitamins and mineral content. Since it can be found easily, there are a lot of local viands and/or dishes that use saluyot as an ingredient. For instance, the Ilocanos use saluyot in their preparation of dinengdeng and bulangbulang. Fried saluyot are also mixed with sautéed bamboo shoots and dried beans. Other dishes include, but are not limited to chicken viands, wherein saluyot are mixed in either sautéed or pureed form. It is also integrated in mongo dishes, and in soups.
The Philippine Department of Health advises the public to increase their intake of this particular vegetable, to include malunggay and banana as well, in order to build resistance against the threat of swine flu.
Health Benifits and use:
• It is rich in calcium, phosphorus, iron and potassium.
• It has also been determined that 100 grams of saluyot contains an ample amount of Vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, and is also rich in fiber.
• It is also gives diet.
• The Ilocanos use saluyot in their preparation of dinengdeng and bulangbulang.
• The content is good for eyesight, as the vegetable contains beta-carotene.
• It is used to reduce wrinkles, it is also contains anti-oxidant substances.
• It is used for anti-inflammatory treatment.
• Its vitamin content is good for eyesight, as the vegetable contains beta-carotene.
• It is used traditionally to address concerns related to inflammation and pain.
• It is also been connected with curing the chronic inflammation of the urinary bladder.